探寻端午与艾叶的文化符号与传承,揭秘中药艾叶的化学成分与应用

端午节是为了纪念我国古代爱国诗人屈原而设立,是中华民族的传统节日,是世界非物质文化遗产,也是我国的国家法定假日。古人云:“家有三年艾,郎中不用来”。那么,作为中华民族的传统文化瑰宝之一,中药艾叶到底具有什么神奇之处呢?
作者:小毅
时间:2023-08-17
阅读次数:454

端午节是为了纪念我国古代爱国诗人屈原而设立,是中华民族的传统节日,是世界非物质文化遗产,也是我国的国家法定假日。端午节传统习俗包括吃粽子、划龙舟、挂艾叶、穿五彩丝线等。其中,艾叶作为端午的重要元素之一,在端午节扮演重要角色。“艾旗迎百福,蒲剑斩千邪”,人们在端午节常将艾插在门口、窗户、床头或挂在门楣上,认为艾叶具有驱邪、辟恶、祈福、驱虫、养生的作用。

The Dragon Boat Festival, established in commemoration of Qu Yuan, an ancient Chinese patriotic poet, represents a traditional festival deeply rooted in the cultural heritage of the Chinese nation and recognized as a world intangible cultural heritage. The festival encompasses various traditional customs, such as the consumption of Zong-zi (a type of sticky rice dumpling wrapped in bamboo leaves), engaging in dragon boat racing, adorning surroundings with leaves of Artemisia argyi, and wearing vibrant silk threads. Notably, leaves of A. argyi hold significant importance as a key component of the festival. It is customary for individuals to place Artemisia at doorways, windows, or hang them on lintels. This practice stems from the ancient belief that leaves of A. argyi possess the abilities to ward off evil spirits, prevent disasters, attract blessings, repel insects, and foster well-being.

艾叶(图片来源于中国植物图像库

古人云:“家有三年艾,郎中不用来”。那么,作为中华民族的传统文化瑰宝之一,中药艾叶到底具有什么神奇之处呢?

艾叶别名艾蒿、家艾、冰台、灸草等,来源于菊科植物艾 Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant 的干燥叶,夏季花未开时采摘,除去杂质,晒干。艾叶集药品、食品、保健品等于一体,开发前景广阔。艾叶直接焚烧可驱蚊虫;除去杂质及梗,筛去灰屑,可做中药饮片;经炮制并按标准汤剂的主要质量指标可加工成艾叶配方颗粒;粉碎后加工成艾绒,可用于艾灸。

According to an ancient saying, a household with three years of Ai-Ye does not require a doctor. However, as one of the traditional cultural treasures of the Chinese nation, what exactly makes Ai-Ye (leaves of A. argyi), a type of traditional Chinese medicine, so extraordinary?
Ai-Ye, also known as Ai-Hao, Jia-Ai, Bing-Tai, and Jiu-Cao, are the dried leaves of the plant Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant belonging to the family Asteraceae. They are harvested before the flowers bloom during the summer, cleaned to remove impurities, and dried. Ai-Ye encompass the qualities of traditional Chinese medicine, food, and health supplements, presenting broad prospects for development. Burning Ai-Ye directly can repel mosquitoes, flies and insects. After removing impurities and stems and sieving out the ash, they can be processed into Chinese herbal medicinal slices. By further processing and following standard decoction formulations, they can be manufactured into Ai-Ye formula granules. When pulverized, they can be processed into Artemisia fluff for use in moxibustion therapy.

艾叶(图片来源于网络

01

药典收录与性味归经

艾叶始载于《名医别录》,历代本草皆有收录,亦被收录于各版《中华人民共和国药典》。

艾叶,辛、苦、温,有小毒,归肝、脾、肾经。

1. Pharmacopoeia Inclusion and Categorization

The earliest known mention of Ai-Ye can be found in the book Ming Yi Bie Lu. Throughout history, they have been consistently included in numerous editions of the Compendium of Materia Medica and are listed in various editions of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China.

Ai-Ye are described as possessing a pungent, bitter, and warm nature, accompanied by a mild toxicity. According to traditional Chinese medicines, they are attributed to the liver, spleen, and kidney meridians, indicating their effects on these organs and their associated functions.

02

艾叶饮片与配方颗粒

艾叶炮制方法主要包括净制、炒制、制炭、制绒、辅料制(醋制、酒制、蜜制、四制)等,其炮制品有净艾叶、艾叶炭、醋艾叶、醋艾炭等。常用的艾叶饮片品种有净艾叶、炒艾叶、醋艾叶、醋艾炭、酒艾叶、蜜艾叶、艾叶炭、艾绒、艾粉、艾条、艾把等。

艾叶配方颗粒:取艾叶饮片(净艾叶)4000 g,加水煎煮,滤过,滤液浓缩成清膏(出膏率为 15%~25%),加辅料适量,干燥,粉碎,混匀,制粒,制成艾叶配方颗粒 1000 g。艾叶配方颗粒以总黄酮和绿原酸的含量作为配方颗粒的质量检测依据,其中,总黄酮含量以紫外-可见分光光度法测定,绿原酸含量以高效液相色谱法测定。(四川省药品监督管理局 中药(配方颗粒)标准 标准号:SCYPBZ(PFKL)-2021057)

2. Slices and Formula Granules of Ai-Ye
Ai-Ye undergo various processing methods such as cleaning, frying, charring, fluffing, and auxiliary processing using vinegar, wine, or honey. These methods yield different processed products, including cleaned Ai-Ye, charred Ai-Ye, vinegar-processed Ai-Ye, vinegar-charred Ai-Ye, and more. Among the commonly used varieties, Ai-Ye slices are prepared as cleaned, fried, vinegar-processed, vinegar-charred, wine-processed, honey-processed, or charred leaves. Additionally, Ai-Ye can be processed into fluff, powder, sticks, and bundles.
Ai-Ye Formula Granules are prepared as follows: 4000 g of cleaned Ai-Ye slices are boiled in water, and the resulting decoction is filtered. The filtrate is then concentrated to obtain a clear paste, with a yield of 15% to 25%. Suitable excipients are added to the paste, which is subsequently dried, pulverized, thoroughly mixed, and granulated, resulting in 1000 g of Ai-Ye Formula Granules. The quality of the formula granules is assessed based on the content of total flavonoids and chlorogenic acid. The content of flavonoids is determined using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, while the content of chlorogenic acid is analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These methods are in accordance with the standards specified by the Sichuan Provincial Drug Administration, as outlined in Standard Number SCYPBZ(PFKL)-2021057, which pertains to the Traditional Chinese Medicine (Formula Granules) Standard.

 

艾叶中绿原酸类化合物对照特征图谱

峰1:新绿原酸;峰2:绿原酸(S1);峰3:隐绿原酸;

峰4:异绿原酸 B;峰5:异绿原酸 A(S2);峰6:异绿原酸 C

03

艾叶的化学成分

艾叶中迄今已被阐明的化学成分超过200种,主要包括挥发油、黄酮、苯丙素、萜类(单萜、倍半萜和三萜)等。挥发油是艾叶的主要活性成分之一,通过气质联用法已从艾叶中鉴定的挥发油类化学成分超过100种;艾叶中黄酮类化合物主要为黄酮、黄酮醇及其苷,包括异泽兰黄素、泽兰黄酮、芹菜素、矢车菊黄素等;艾叶中的苯丙素类化合物主要为绿原酸及其类似物(如上图所示);艾叶中的萜类化合物成分较为复杂,单萜类化合物中桉油精和樟脑的含量较高;倍半萜类化合物(如下图所示)主要包括愈创木烷型、桉烷型、长叶蒎烷型和石竹烷型,也会以二聚体的形式存在,其中,愈创木烷型倍半萜种类最多,而桉烷型倍半萜含量相对丰富;已报道三萜类化合物31个,均为五环三萜,结构骨架包含齐墩果烷型、乌苏烷型、羽扇豆烷型和木栓烷型。

3. Chemical Composition of Ai-Ye
More than 200 chemical components have been identified from Ai-Ye, including volatile oils, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and terpenes et al. Among them, volatile oils are considered major bioactive constituents, and more than 100 volatile oil components have been identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Flavonoids present in Ai-Ye primarily consist of flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides, including compounds like eupatilin, nepetin, apigenin, centaureidin, and others. Phenylpropanoid compounds, such as chlorogenic acid and its derivatives, are also prominent in Ai-Ye (as illustrated). The terpene composition of Ai-Ye is complex, with notable levels of cineole and camphor found in the monoterpenes. Sesquiterpene compounds mainly form in guaiacane, eucalyptane, pinane and caryophyllane, which can also exist as dimers. Among the sesquiterpenes, guaiacane-type compounds exhibit the greatest diversity, while eucalyptane-type sesquiterpenes are relatively abundant. Additionally, 31 triterpenes belonging to the pentacyclic triterpene group have been reported, including dammarane-type, ursane-type, lupane-type, and friedelane-type structures.

 

艾叶中的部分倍半萜类化合物

04

艾叶的药理活性

艾叶具有温经止血、散寒止痛、祛湿止痒等功效,可内服,也可外敷。临床用于治疗吐血、衄血、崩漏、月经过多、胎漏下血、少腹冷痛、经寒不调、宫冷不孕、皮肤瘙痒等症,是中医妇科常用药。现代药理学研究表明艾叶具有抗菌、抗炎、抗病毒、抗氧化、抗过敏、保肝利胆、止血、免疫调节等诸多药理活性。

4. Pharmacological Activities of Ai-Ye
Ai-Ye have been recognized for their efficacy in warming the meridians, stopping bleeding, dispersing cold and alleviating pain, and relieving dampness and itching. They can be taken orally or applied externally. Clinically, they are used to treat conditions such as hematemesis, epistaxis, excessive menstrual bleeding, threatened abortion with vaginal bleeding, cold and painful lower abdomen, menstrual disorders due to cold, cold uterus leading to infertility, and pruritus of the skin. Ai-Ye is commonly used in traditional Chinese gynecology. It has been revealed by modern pharmacological studies that Ai-Ye possess various pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, hemostatic, and immunomodulatory effects.

艾叶在我国有两千多年的药用历史,植物资源丰富,随着艾叶化学成分及药理研究的不断深入,艾叶的应用范围也越来越广,艾叶资源综合开发利用进展迅猛。艾叶饮片、艾叶配方颗粒、艾叶蚊香、艾叶牙膏、艾绒及艾灸相关产品等不断在市场涌现。随着国家大健康产业的发展壮大,传统中药艾叶也将在防病治病等领域发挥更重要、更积极的作用,随之也将带来更大的经济效益与社会价值。

In conclusion, Ai-Ye have a medicinal history over two thousand years in China and are abundant in plant resource. As research on the chemical composition and pharmacology of Ai-Ye continues to deepen, their applications have been expanding, and there has been rapid progress in the comprehensive development and utilization of Ai-Ye resource. Various products derived from Ai-Ye, including Ai-Ye slices, Ai-Ye formula granules, Ai-Ye mosquito repellents, Ai-Ye toothpaste, Artemisia fluff, and products related to moxibustion, are emerging in the market. With the development and growth of the national health industry, traditional Chinese medicine such as Ai-Ye is expected to play a more significant and proactive role in disease prevention and treatment, bringing about greater economic benefits and social value.

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